Canada

March 21, 2019 - Dossier
Canada leads by example: The recently founded Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability is a stellar manifestation of a national "Femicide Watch" that the UN Special Rapporteur on VAW has been calling for.
# femicide #research #data #data collection #media reports #observatory #statistics

 

The Observatory is based on and continues its research work on femicide, conducted by members of the Centre for the Study of Social and Legal Responses to Violence at the University of Guelph. Various studies and reports have been published with data and statistics on femicide case, e.g. in the Ontario region, a few of which are presented on this platform.

Reading List

 

1. Why misogynistic killings need a public label | Myrna Dawson

Friday, April 27, 2018 - 16 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

The Toronto van attack started a public discourse in Canada about misogynistic hate crimes, as the killer was a member of an online misogynistic movement. Myrna Dawson clarifies the link between misogyny and femicide, and shows that it occurs regularly.

Myrna Dawson

 

"Femicide is the misogynistic killing of women by men. We need to label it as such to distinguish it from the killing of men – they too are most often killed by men, but for different reasons and in different situations."

"It is time that we talk about intimate or domestic terrorism and the misogyny that fuels all forms of femicide. "

 
 

2. Call It Femicide: Femicide in Canada 2018 | Canadian Femicide Observatory

Tuesday, January 1, 2019 - 00 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

Must-read report by the new Canadian Femicide Observatory CFOJA. It includes data and statistics on femicide in Canada in 2018 (148 women and girls were killed by violence), based on media reports, while also covering past and ongoing work on femicide in Canada as well as current and emerging trends on the international level. The CFOJA coined the new hashtag #CallItFemicide.

Myrna Dawson, Danielle Sutton, Michelle Carrigan, Valérie Grand'Maison

 

Foreword, page 5:

"The recent call by the United Nations for countries to create femicide observatories is a significant and urgent signal. Despite research done to date, and advances made, this issue remains a very serious and critical issue for women and girls in Canada and around the world.

The CFOJA was established to respond to this call. Its work is supported and strengthened by collaborations among researchers and an advisory panel of experts from across the country. This ensures that the work is both grounded in accurate statistical data and accompanied by a reliable and accessible presentation of information in a way that best reflects the realities of the women and girls who are killed by violence in Canada. This was also the methodology undertaken several decades ago by the Women We Honour Action Committee when it conducted the original intimate femicide research in Ontario.

This report is a testament to that earlier research and activism because those findings remain accurate and unchallenged. They have also created a solid foundation for ongoing research today.

Since this original study, much more research has been done on femicide, but little appears to have changed when it comes to how it occurs and why. Progress on prevention and on accountability has been slow to evolve. We have yet to meet the basic standard required to prevent these killings or to hold perpetrators accountable in a manner that would reflect widespread condemnation of these crimes.

This report contains critical information that builds on the earlier and ongoing work on femicide in Canada and internationally by highlighting current and emerging trends and issues that require further investigation and monitoring in the coming years. We continue this work because we believe that femicide is preventable."

Executive Summary, pages 7 and 8:

"The Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability (CFOJA) is the sole Canadian initiative responding to the United Nations call to establish femicide observatories1 to more comprehensively and accurately document gender-related killings of women and girls or ‘femicide’. The CFOJA mandate is to establish a visible and national focus on femicide in Canada by: (1) documenting femicides as they occur in Canada; and, (2) monitoring state, legal and social responses to these killings.

This is the CFOJA’s inaugural one-year report focusing on women and girls killed by violence in Canada from January 1 to December 31, 2018.

Section I discusses the evolution of the term ‘femicide’ internationally and in the Canadian context. For the latter, three key turning points are highlighted: (1) the mass femicide at École Polytechnique, Université of Montréal in 1989; (2) early research on intimate femicide in Ontario by the Women We Honour Action Committee; and (3) grassroots initiatives that drew national and international attention to missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls. The section concludes with a description of the definitional parameters for femicide adopted by the CFOJA.

Section II focuses on all women and girls killed by violence in Canada in 2018 which were identified through media reports. Some highlights are as follows:

  • In 2018, 148 women and girls were killed by violence in Canada. On average, every 2.5 days one woman or girl is killed in this country – a consistent trend for four decades.
  • The highest rate of killing of women and girls wasin Nunavut followed by the Yukon, New Brunswick and Manitoba. The lowest rate was in Quebec followed by British Columbia and Nova Scotia.
  • Indigenous women and girls were overrepresented as victims, comprising about five percent of the population in Canada, but 36 percent of those women and girls who were killed by violence.
  • Approximately 34 percent of women and girls were killed in rural areas whereas only about 16 percent of the population in Canada lives in rural areas.
  • Women and girls aged 25-34 years were overrepresented as victims: 27 percent of those killed, but only 14 percent of the population.
  • The most common method used when a woman or girl was killed was shooting (34%) followed by stabbing (28%) and beating (24%)
  • Approximately 11 percent of the accused committed suicide following the killing – all of whom were male.
  • Where an accused has been identified, 91% are male accused, consistent with national and international patterns.

Section III focuses on cases involving the killing of women and girls by male accused. Three types of femicide are focused upon in particular: (1) intimate femicide; (2) familial femicide; and (3) non-intimate femicide (i.e. perpetrated by male acquaintances and strangers). This section also introduces five gender-based motives/indicators for femicide: (1) misogyny; (2) sexual violence; (3) coercive-controlling behaviours, including jealousy and stalking; (4) separation/estrangement; and (5) overkill.

Some highlights related to the most common type of femicide – intimate femicide – are as follows:

  • Like global patterns, the home is the most dangerous place for women and girls with 53% killed by male partners and another 13 percent killed by other male family members. The remainder were killed by male strangers (21%) or acquaintances (13%).
  • Intimate femicide victims in both Ontario (45%) and Alberta (16%) are overrepresented slightly relative to the proportion of Canadian women living in those jurisdictions (39% and 11% respectively). Intimate femicide victims in Quebec (10%) were underrepresented compared to the proportion of women living in that province (23%).
  • A higher proportion of intimate femicide involved visible minority women compared to their representation in the population in contrast to the total sample of women and girls killed where they were underrepresented as victims when information on race/ethnicity was known.
  • Examining relationship status, the largest proportion of victim and accused were common-law partners (38%), followed closely by those who were legally married (36%) and then dating (27%). One in five of the intimate femicide victims were separated from the accused (22%).
  • Like the total sample, shooting was the most common method in intimate femicides (35%).
  • A higher proportion of accused committed suicide following the intimate femicide (27% compared to 11% of the total sample of women and girls killed by violence).

Section IV discusses some current and emerging research priorities for informed prevention. We focus first on situational factors that have emerged as more common in the 2018 cases: (1) intimacy; (2) rurality; (3) firearms; and (4) collateral victims. We then turn to various socio-demographic factors that were common in the 2018 cases or appeared in cases that highlighted groups of victims that may be more at risk of femicide, but for whom there has been little research attention. These include: (1) Indigenous women and girls; (2) immigrant women and girls; (3) older women; and (4) women and girls with disabilities.

Section V discusses future research planned by the CFOJA that will focus on the broader community- or societal-level factors that research has shown can work to facilitate, or prevent, male violence against women, including problematic attitudes, beliefs and stereotypes that impede prevention efforts. The three arenas examined will be: (1) the media; (2) the criminal justice system, particularly the courts; and, finally, (3) the legislative and policy contexts. All three arenas can play a powerful role in challenging, or entrenching, problematic attitudes, beliefs and stereotypes that work to perpetuate and maintain men’s violence against women and girls.

Section VI remembers all women and girls killed by violence in Canada in 2018. We include quotes throughout the report from family members and friends impacted by their deaths as one way of showing their lost potential and ongoing impacts on those they leave behind due to femicide.

The CFOJA research is ongoing. Early in 2019, we will complete data collection for women and girls killed by violence in Canada in 2016 and 2017. We will continue to document femicides of women and girls in our country for earlier years. We also continue to collect information on male homicides for comparative purposes. Therefore, future reports will aim: (1) to describe trends and patterns in femicide over time; (2) to compare the characteristics and circumstances surrounding femicide to that of homicide involving male victims; and (3) to identify and monitor current and emerging themes in femicide, including priorities for research and prevention."

 

 

 
 

3. 1990-2015: 25 Years of Femicide in Ontario | OAITH

Friday, January 1, 2016 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

This report focuses specifically on the number of women and children murdered as a result of Intimate Partner Violence in Ontario.

Megan Byrne
 
 

4. Woman Killing: Intimate Femicide in Ontario 1974-1994 | Dawson, Gartner, Crawford

This early paper on femicide, dating back to 1999, reviews major findings from the research about women killed by their intimate partners in Ontario.

Rosemary Gartner, Myrna Dawson, Maria Crawford

 

Between 1974 and 1994, killings by intimate partners accounted for between 63% and 76% of all women killed in Ontario. It documents trends in intimate femicide, characteristics of victims and offenders, circumstances of the killings, and criminal justice responses to offenders. It also discusses the gender-specific nature of intimate femicides and identifies ways in which intimate partner killings by males and females are distinctly different.

The research paper is only available on Research Gate.