Mexico

May 8, 2018 - Dossier
In Mexico, femicide has been taking place for many years. Despite laws and a historic ruling of the Mexican Supreme Court, the killing continues.
# Mexico #femicide #Mariana Lima #Ciudad Juarez #Cotton Field case #jurisdiction #VAW #history #situation

About the situation in Mexico

In this special dossier on femicide in Mexico, we will provide key information on the situation in this country and related materials concerning legislation, cases, campaigns, inter alia. Also, we have created a first reading list on Mexico for you, for a quick overview of related materials on this platform.

From the killings of Ciudad Juarez to the first Supreme Court ruling on feminicide

Back in the 1980s, the first feminicides were reported in Mexico. In 2009, the second wave of killings in Ciudad Juarez started. Over 700 women were killed until then -- and many more in the years thereafter: As the Guardian reported in 2017, of the over 50,000 killed women since 1983 nearly a third of them were killed in the last six years (Increasing femicide rates in Mexico | The Guardian).

The "Cotton Field case" was a landmark ruling in 2009 by the IACHR, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, after it had been issuing its very first report on the situation of women in Ciudad Juarez already back in 2003. In 2009, the IACHR recognised that the disappearances and murders of three women in Mexico were gender-based and perpetrated in the known context of violence against women in Ciudad Juarez. Hence, it prosecuted the Mexican nation-state for such crimes. (Gonzalez, Monreal and Monarrez ("Cotton Field") v. Mexico | LSE, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2003 report on Ciudad Juarez)

Mexico’s Federal Supreme Court, in a landmark ruling, prosecuted her the Mariana Lima case as “feminicidio” in 2015 (The Long Road to Justice, Prosecuting Femicide in Mexico | UN Women).

 

The Mariana Lima case

Among the many individual cases that have been reported, the killing of Mariana Lima is one of the most prominent ones.

Mariana Lima was violently murdered by her husband, César Hernández Ballinas (a judiciary policeman with a previous record of violence and abuse against his wife) in 2010. Five years later, the case reached justice. Mexico’s Federal Supreme Court prosecuted her case as “feminicidio”; the first ever such ruling worldwide. This landmark ruling was influenced by and resulted from a mix of normative frameworks and action across all levels: global / regional / national / grassroots. Key factors included:

  1. the persistent family's advocacy, supported by various Mexican grassroot / civil society organizations, already active for years;
  2. the high media attention due to Ciudad Juárez / "Cotton Field" sentence;
  3. the existence of various key international and regional frameworks. 

 

Timeline of the Mariana Lima case

Timeline Mariana Lima 1
Timeline Mariana Lima 2
Timeline Mariana Lima 3
Author: Saide Mobayed

Key grassroots

In 2004, the national observatory OCNF was established. It represents 49 organizations from 21 Mexican states and is considered the largest civil society “observatory” on femicide, in Latin America and beyond.

 

 

 

 

 

Reading List

 

1. Cases of Femicides in Mexico since 2016: Interactive Maps

Monday, January 1, 2018 - 00 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

Independent civic initiative based on open data which, using geographical coordinates, has mapped 2,355 cases of femicide in Mexico since 2016.

 
 

2. Gonzalez, Monreal and Monarrez ("Cotton Field") v. Mexico | LSE

Thursday, January 1, 2009 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

In 2009 the IACHR recognised that the disappearances and murders of three women in Mexico were gender-based and perpetrated in the known context of violence against women in Ciudad Juarez. Hence, it prosecuted the Mexican nation-state for such crimes.

 
 

3. The Long Road to Justice, Prosecuting Femicide in Mexico | UN Women

Wednesday, November 29, 2017 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

A concise overview of the history and the current situation in Mexico as well as information on key rulings, guidelines and grassroots work in Mexico, issued by UN Women.

 
 

4. Femicide in Mexico Has More Than Doubled Since 2007 | Global Citizen

Thursday, December 14, 2017 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

A recent report from Mexico’s interior department, the National Women’s Institute, and UN Women reveals that violence against women is nearly as high as it was at its peak in 2012 and more than twice as high as it was in 2007.

 
 

5. Protocolo de Actuación en la Investigación del Delito de Homicidio desde la Perspectiva del Feminicidio Mexico

Wednesday, November 25, 2009 - 09 — Policies, Guidelines, Jurisprudence

This normative frameworks by "Para el Instituto Nacional de las Mujere"s is particularly important in the context of Mariana Lima’s case. It serves as a practical tool for public and civil servants in Mexico to sucessfully implement a gender perspective in the investigation of homicides.

 
 

6. The Women of Atenco | NYT

Thursday, September 22, 2016 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

"When President Enrique Peña Nieto of Mexico was still a governor, he ordered a crackdown on protesters that led to the brutal sexual assault of dozens of women. The victims took their case to international human rights officials. These are their stories..."

 
 

7. Victoria Salas: What Happened after her Feminicide | Chilango

Friday, February 2, 2018 - 10 — News

"Victoria Salas: Qué Pasó Después de su FeminicidiWhat happens inside a home after a feminicide?" "Losing a daughter is like losing a part of your body" says Victoria Salas, the mother of Victoria, who was brutally murdered by her ex boyfriend in September 2017. This report takes a look inside her home.

 
 

8. Proposals for Analysis and Monitoring of the IACHR's "Cotton Field" Case Sentence | Heinrich Böll Stiftung

Sunday, December 1, 2013 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

The objective of this publication is to aid closer understanding of the contents and the monitoring of the Cotton Case judgement. Points and proposals that seek to facilitate analysis and debate of the sentence are highlighted.

 
 

9. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2003 report on Ciudad Juarez

Friday, March 7, 2003 - 09 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

IACHR report about the right of women in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico to be free from violence and discrimination, including recommendations to assist the Mexican State in amplifying its efforts to respect and ensure this right.