The Femicide Volumes
Over the past six years, the Vienna Femicide Team (from now on part of newly launched UNSA Vienna) has published twelve volumes on the issue of femicide and related concerns such as armed conflicts, terrorism, elderly women, slavery, femicide watches. It all started with the successful efforts of the Femicide Team to push through the first-ever GA resolutions on femicide. For your quick reference, we have compiled all volumes in this dossier. Enjoy the read!


1. Femicide Volume 1: A Global Issue that Demands Action | ACUNS Vienna

Wednesday, May 1, 2013 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

On the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, the Vienna Liaison Office of ACUNS organized a one-day symposium on femicide in the United Nations (UN) Office in Vienna. Member State representatives, social scientists, NGO representatives, law enforcement officials, prosecutors and feminist activists had the opportunity to speak about femicide, explain its meaning and causes, and presented examples of best practice in fighting femicide.


Femicide is the ultimate form of violence against women and girls and takes multiple forms. Its many causes are rooted in the historically unequal power relations between men and women and in systemic gender-based discrimination. For a case to be considered femicide there must be an implied intention to carry out the murder and a demonstrated connection between the crime and the female gender of the victim.1 So far, data on femicide have been highly unreliable and the estimated numbers of women who have been victims of femicides vary accordingly. Femicides take place in every country of the world. The greatest concern related to femicide is that these murders continue to be accepted, tolerated or justified – with impunity as the norm.

On the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, the Vienna Liaison Office of ACUNS organized a one-day symposium on femicide in the United Nations (UN) Office in Vienna. (1) Member State representatives, social scientists, NGO representatives, law enforcement officials, prosecutors and feminist activists had the opportunity to speak about femicide, explain its meaning and causes, and presented examples of best practice in fighting femicide.

This publication is the result of this symposium and comprises the speeches and presentations of the various experts of the symposium. They discussed the issue of femicide from different perspectives, addressed the problems related to femicide including impunity and proposed comprehensive ways to fight this crime efficiently. In addition to the speeches this publication contains further information about the major forms of femicide. These short articles give an overview of the various crimes, including a description of the extent of the respective form of femicide and best practice examples to fight this crime. The list of examples is by no means exhaustive but all should be considered murder under the law. In September 2012 an important step was taken in El-Salvador to elaborate a “Protocol for the investigation and documentation of extreme violence against women”, which can be found in this publication.

This publication also contains the first UN document to focus on gender-based killings, the 2012 report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo, to the Human Rights Council. In response to the presentation of this report sixty four states issued a statement that member states “must exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate, prosecute and punish the perpetrators”.
The aim of this publication is to inform practitioners, Member State representatives, NGO workers, legislators, prosecutors and any other relevant actors who can contribute to putting an end to femicide. With this information about the diverse campaigns, we hope that efforts can be combined and strengthened to end this hideous crime once and for all.

Claire Laurent and Michael Platzer
ACUNS Vienna Liason Office

1 The symposium was organized with the kind support of the Austrian Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs; the Permanent Missions to the UN Office at Vienna of Austria, Argentina, Philippines, Thailand, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Small Arms Survey and the Vienna NGO Committee on the Status of Women.


2. Femicide Volume 2: Istanbul Convention | ACUNS Vienna

Wednesday, January 1, 2014 — Studies, Analyses, Reports


Second volume of the ACUNS Femicide series on forced marriage, VAW and the Istanbul Convention.


On the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, ACUNS Vienna organized its second annual symposium, focusing on “Forced Marriage, Violence against Women and the Istanbul Convention.” The symposium brought together high-ranking diplomats, representatives from UNFPA, UN Women, UNICEF, OHCHR, and UNODC, with the President of the Austrian Parliament, Ms. Barbara Prammer, who addressed the meeting. The leading proponents of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women, Ms. Feride Acar, Ambassador Dubravka Simonovic, Ms. Gisela Wurm, Ms. Liri Kopaci-Di Michele and Mr. José Mendes Bota made convincing arguments as to why such a detailed convention was relevant and open to all countries.

Femicide: A Global Issue that Demands Action not only contains the proceedings of the symposium, but also includes recent resolutions, debates and legal instruments from the General Assembly, Security Council, Human Rights Council, the Crime Commission, statements of high-ranking officials as well as country and regional reports by Heinrich Böll Stiftung, and additional experts and academia. Additionally, the most heinous crimes against women and girls are examined: early, child and forced marriage; sexual violence as a tactic of war; women’s exacerbated vulnerability in armed conflict; pregnancies resulting from rape; structural and domestic violence against migrant women. The importance of civil society including women’s organizations to end impunity and to thoroughly investigate and prosecute persons responsible for these serious crimes was explicitly referred to within the publication.


3. Femicide Volume 3: Targeting of Women in Conflict | ACUNS Vienna

Sunday, March 1, 2015 — Studies, Analyses, Reports


This is the third volume of the ACUNS Femicide series with a focus on sexual violence in conflict.


On 25 November 2014, ACUNS, together with the Governments of Austria, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Norway, Philippines and Thailand, sponsored a symposium on ‘Targeting of Women in War’, which brought together panels of experts to address the various challenges that need to be tackled with great urgency to curb the scourge of sexual violence in conflict. A series of recommendations were made, pointing out that existing legal instruments have proven to be ineffective in addressing this global problem. Perpetrators should be prosecuted and military units must be held to high standards of conduct vis-à-vis civilians. Strict compliance with military and criminal codes must be pursued by the responsible government institutions, while complementary efforts must be undertaken by civil society to ensure proper respect for women and girls in conflict zones. Once again, we are standing as silent witnesses to the mass killings of women in several places around the world. It is imperative to take concrete steps to stop these unspeakable crimes and ensure that these monstrous rapists and killers are not given impunity.

Speakers at the ACUNS conference identified what was done – or not done – after the mass killings in Bosnia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, El Salvador, Guatemala, Rwanda and Sri Lanka. In his annual Report on Conflict-Related Sexual Violence, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, highlights the ongoing challenges faced by individual States in conflict and post-conflict situations to protect women and girls. Reports published in 2014 and early 2015 by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch contain detailed accounts of sexual slavery in Islamic State captivity, Boko Haram’s acts of sexual violence in north-eastern Nigeria and mass rapes in Darfur. The sheer brutality of these acts and the feelings of desperation that are reflected in victims’ testimonies fill us with disgust and shame. These barbarities which one would have thought belonged to past centuries have reared their heads again in the new millennium. The latest figures on mass rapes and incidents of sexual slavery across the world are discouraging. The international community should not stand idly by while these atrocious crimes are being committed. It is essential for the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice to give a strong signal that crimes of sexual violence are not to be tolerated, and that the perpetrators will be brought to justice.

This publication explores the topic of ‘Targeting women in Conflict’ in depth, through a series of strong statements delivered by Secretary-General, the Director of UN Women, the Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, a prosecutor from the International Tribunal for former Yugoslavia and reports from other UN bodies, as well as academic articles addressing the cross- cutting topics of violence against women, femicide and sexual violence.


4. Femicide Volume 4: Taking Action | ACUNS Vienna

Thursday, January 1, 2015 — Studies, Analyses, Reports


This is the fourth volume of the ACUNS Femicide series that focuses on taking action.

This is now the fourth volume of “Femicide: A Global Issue that Demands Action” since the 2012 report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, which listed the various forms of femicide.

While the international community condemns the killing of women in the name of honour, targeted sexual violence in war, female infanticide and sex-selective foeticide, female genital mutilation and child marriage, these practices continue. At times, it seems that we are returning to ancient times when women were kidnapped by soldiers, gang-raped, sold in slave markets and forced into submission in marriage to strangers. Even UN peacekeepers have been accused of sexual abuse of civilians.

We are now fortunate to have two outspoken advocates for women, Mrs. Dubravka Simonovic, Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women and Mrs. Bangura, Special Rapporteur on Sexual Violence in Conflict.


5. Femicide Volume 5: Conflict and Terrorism | ACUNS Vienna

Friday, January 1, 2016 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

In this volume, we are looking at the latest developments on violence against women in conflict and at terrorist groups targeting women and girls.

ACUNS Vienna Liaision Office Femicide Team

In this volume, we are looking at the latest developments on violence against women in conflict and at terrorist groups targeting women and girls. The Security Council has held a landmark session on the implementation of its resolution on women, peace, and security while the General Assembly is grappling with the Secretary General’s proposal on how to deal with violent extremism. The most important documents are included in this publication.


6. Femicide Volume 6: Violence against Girls in Flight | ACUNS Vienna

Tuesday, November 1, 2016 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

This is the sixth volume of the ACUNS Femicide series that focuses on violence against girls

This volume contains the speeches delivered at these side events, at which high-ranking officials and experts on GBV presented comprehensive ways of reducing the risk of such violence, increasing the quality of protection for girl victims, and ending the impunity for perpetrators. It also includes the most recent and most effective prevention and mitigation strategies on gender-based violence against underage girls.

In this volume of FEMICIDE we pay particular attention to girl refugees, displaced girls and migrant children, and the specific forms of violence and abuse occurring in the context of their flight. The refugee and migration flows in 2015 and 2016 have often been accompanied by abuses of the rights of children, and girls in particular. In such extreme situations as armed conflict, natural disasters, and other emergencies, girls are especially vulnerable to forced marriage, sexual exploitation, trafficking, psychological and physical intimidation, during all stages of their displacement. As girls are the most vulnerable of the vulnerable and are less likely to seek protection and a remedy, this publication focuses specifically on transnational aspects of violence against children, which are often neglected.

We hope that FEMICIDE Volume 6: Violence Against Girls will serve as a major resource handbook for practitioners, academics, state representatives, activists, legislators and prosecutors, and will contribute to providing directions for prevention and effective responses to violence against girls.


7. Femicide Volume 7: Establishing a Femicide Watch in Every Country | ACUNS Vienna

Monday, May 1, 2017 — Studies, Analyses, Reports


Femicide Report presented at the 2017 Crime Commission meeting on national Femicide Watches and data collection, as called for by the UN Special Rapporteur on VAW.


Unless there is accurate and comparable data collection on a given crime, there will be no proper understanding of it and no effective strategy with which to combat it. Having clear data helps law makers and government officials win the public’s support for tackling it through targeted prevention and investigation resources. Femicide has been defined as murder of a woman by an intimate partner or family members and the targeting of women by criminal gangs or as a weapon of war. It has been universally recognised as a crime. But how do horrific crimes of this type so often slip under the radar? Why is it so difficult to collect data on such an abhorrent criminal activity and, subsequently, to arrest the perpetrators?

In 2015 Dr. Dubravka Šimonović, UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women called for “the establishment of femicide watches or observatories on violence against women which should collect data on gender related killing of women and femicide and analyse, with the assistance of interdisciplinary review panels, all femicide cases including court decisions in order to identify gaps in the intervention system, criminal justice and criminal procedures system, as well as risk factors to prevent and protect women and girls from those killings.”


8. Femicide Volume 8: Abuse and Femicide of the Older Women | ACUNS Vienna

Wednesday, November 1, 2017 — Studies, Analyses, Reports


The abuse and femicide of older women is one of the most widespread unpunished crimes. This volume aims to analyse the ways in which women, over the age of 55, are psychologically and physically mistreated around the globe.


9. Femicide Volume 9: Femicide, State Accountability and Punishment | ACUNS Vienna

Tuesday, May 1, 2018 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

This volume of our Femicide publication series deals with state and international responsibility.

We all have a national and international obligation to put an end to such atrocities, to prosecute offenders and to lift up the many victims’ shattered lives. Governments can and must provide “safe places” for at-risk women and children. As a physician, I am acutely focused on the compelling need for medical treatment, counselling and education. And ultimately, there must be a viable plan for providing women with the possibility of economic self-sufficiency, which in turn can assure independence and the chance of a better future.


10. Femicide Volume 10: Contemporary Forms of Enslavement of Women & Girls | ACUNS Vienna

Thursday, November 1, 2018 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

International organisations, NGOs and independent researchers helped produce this awareness-raising publication on modern-day enslavement of women and girls, a practice that is still commonplace in too many parts of this world.


We are honoured to present the tenth volume of FEMICIDE on Contemporary Forms of Enslavement of Women and Girls. Since 2013 the ACUNS Vienna Liaison Office has worked hard to provide a platform for those who dedicate their resources to fighting gender-related  violence against women and girls, including the killing of women (femicide), its most severe manifestation. Hence, over the years FEMICIDE has become an important resource book for international institutions, scholars and practitioners. Connecting the right people has always been at the top of our agenda. We are convinced that it is only by working together that we can end gender-related violence worldwide.

FEMICIDE X reflects this important principle. International organisations, NGOs and independent researchers have come together to help produce this awareness-raising publication on contemporary forms of slavery, which touches upon many important and, sadly, overlooked issues. In the first part of this Volume important statements give an overview of past actions to eliminate violence against women and what needs to be done in the future. There then follows a collection of reports and articles on modern-day enslavement of women and girls, a practice that is still commonplace in too many parts of this world.
Further, we provide a review of the ACUNS symposium on “Ending Impunity for Gender-related Killing of Women and Girls – State Responsibility and Accountability”, which took place in May 2018. There is then a short preview of our next volume on cyber bullying as a form of violence against women. The last section of FEMICIDE X is dedicated to the efforts and achievements of the civil society to combat femicide.

11. Femicide Volume 11: Cyber Crimes against Women and Girls | UNSA Femicide Team

Monday, May 20, 2019 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

This volume  again compiles strategies, best practices and innovative approaches, serves as a platform for, and provides practical support to anybody who wishes to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish VAW and gender-related killings of women and girls, i.e. femicide. The second section on cyber crimes includes an interview with Neil Walsh of UNODC, articles on online harassment of women journalists and cyber crimes against women in India, among others.


Table of Contents

PART I: Important Statements 8

Joint Statement 9
Statement by the UNODC 11
Message by Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka 12
Message by Antonio Gutierres 13
Statement by the European Commission 14
Joint UN Statement 15
Press Release by the Spotlight Initiative 16
Keynote Speech by Harlem Désir 17

PART II: Cyber Crime Against Women and Girls 19

Herstorical forerunners to present day cyber crimes:
Non-state torturers, traffickers, pornographers, and buyers 20
Time to end Cyber Crimes Against Women and Girls 26
Interview with Neil Walsh, UNODC 29
Cyber intimate partner abuse against girls and women 32
Cyber Crimes Against Women in India 37
India: Sex Trafficking in the Digital Era 40
“That’s (not) just the Internet” - Understanding and combatting
online harassment of women journalists 45
Violencia en el Noviazgo online y riesgo de suicidio en mujeres jóvenes españolas 50
The path to digital inclusion of women and girls 56

PART III: Contemporary Forms of Enslavement Of Women and Girls 61

Side Event: Contemporary Forms of Enslavement of Women and Girls 62
New aspects and forms of Human Trafficking (followed by slavery)
provoked by the so called "refugee crisis"66 A quasi-paradigm shift in combatting human trafficking:
The need for an integrated theoretical perspective 68

Part VI: Further Reading 73

Interview with Angela Me, UNODC 74
Suggested Reading 76
Suggested Viewing78


12. Femicide Volume 12: Living Victims of Femicide | UNSA Femicide Team

Monday, November 25, 2019 — Studies, Analyses, Reports

This FEMICIDE XII volume, dedicated to the late Prof. Anna Costanza Baldry,  is concerned with the effects of femicide on children of the victims together with the killing of women who speak out against abuse. Good stories with a focus on Femicide Watch/Observatories; the relevance of monitoring, recording, and mapping of feminicide; and the use of criminal verdicts as a source of information for collecting data are also covered in this volume. 

FEMICIDE XII marks the beginning of a new era. FEMICIDE XII is the result of evaluating what worked well with the eleven previous volumes and what we could do better in the future. FEMICIDE XII demonstrates where we come from, what we stand for and what we strive for. It is a culmination of our ongoing efforts to help end violence against women (VAW) and its most severe manifestation: femicide.

FEMICIDE XII is the first volume released under a new publisher: The United Nations Studies Association (UNSA) Vienna. The FEMICIDE team and the Global Femicide Watch Platform, a special project of UNSA, have cooperated closely but it was not until this summer that we decided to join forces, bundle our resources and broaden our capacities. Two motivated teams merged to prosper together.

From now on, all submissions in FEMICIDE are double blind peer reviewed and as such all academic articles in future volumes testify to quality and innovation in this field. Despite these big changes, what has remained the same is our commitment to bring about change, to attract attention to and promote the fight against a societal phenomenon that, sadly, is worsening. The killing of women because they are women occurs in various forms on a global level and symbolises a world where VAW is broadly accepted.

Regrettably, our contribution to end violence against women seems to be more important than ever! What gives us hope is that we are not fighting alone: International Organizations, NGOs, activists, scholars and other motivated individuals have come together to support the production of FEMICIDE XII.

The first part of FEMICIDE XII covers the effects of femicide on children of the victims and is dedicated to the late Prof. Anna Costanza Baldry. The second part is titled ‘Silenced to Death’, focusing on the killing of women who speak out against abuse.

We hope you have an eye opening and inspiring read!