definition

Global → femicide

Linguistic Cracks in the use of the term femicide | Oxford Human Rights Hub

June 24, 2016 — Femicide Definitions

In this article, the author explains how the terms femicide and feminicide have developed along different lines, why the Western notion of femicide tends to overlook the cause and reason of a women's death, and argues for a narrower understanding.

Alec Cunningham — Oxford Human Rights Hub
#APRAN Femicide Definitions

Linguistic Cracks in the use of the term femicide | Oxford Human Rights Hub

June 24, 2016
#femicide, #feminicide, #language, #definition, #understanding, #linguistic

Executive Summary

In this article, the author explains how the terms femicide and feminicide have developed along different lines, why the Western notion of femicide tends to overlook the cause and reason of a women's death, and argues for a narrower understanding.

Alec Cunningham — Oxford Human Rights Hub

Global → femicide

Understanding Femicide | WHO

January 1, 2012 — Femicide Definitions
This 2012 information sheet on femicide, including a definition and an overview of the different types of femicide, is part of a series produced by WHO and PAHO to review the evidence base on aspects of violence against women.
WHO
"Femicide is generally understood to involve intentional murder of women because they are women, but broader definitions include any killings of women or girls. This information sheet focuses on the narrower definition commonly used in policies, laws and research: intentional murder of women. Femicide is usually perpetrated by men, but sometimes female family members may be involved. Femicide differs from male homicide in specific ways. For example, most cases of femicide are committed by partners or ex-partners, and involve ongoing abuse
in the home, threats or intimidation, sexual violence or situations where women have less power or fewer resources than their partner..."
#APRAN Femicide Definitions

Understanding Femicide | WHO

January 1, 2012
#WHO, #definition, #femicide, #types of femicide, #infosheet

Executive Summary

This 2012 information sheet on femicide, including a definition and an overview of the different types of femicide, is part of a series produced by WHO and PAHO to review the evidence base on aspects of violence against women.
WHO
"Femicide is generally understood to involve intentional murder of women because they are women, but broader definitions include any killings of women or girls. This information sheet focuses on the narrower definition commonly used in policies, laws and research: intentional murder of women. Femicide is usually perpetrated by men, but sometimes female family members may be involved. Femicide differs from male homicide in specific ways. For example, most cases of femicide are committed by partners or ex-partners, and involve ongoing abuse
in the home, threats or intimidation, sexual violence or situations where women have less power or fewer resources than their partner..."

Latin America and the Caribbean → femicide

5 Countries in Latin America Where Femicide Is At Its Worst | Elite Daily

June 19, 2015 — Research, Analysis, Report, Study

This report provides an overview of femicide in 5 Latin American countries.

Kristina Udice — Elite Daily
#APRAN Research, Analysis, Report, Study

5 Countries in Latin America Where Femicide Is At Its Worst | Elite Daily

June 19, 2015
#femicide, #Latin America, #definition, #statistics, #countries

Executive Summary

This report provides an overview of femicide in 5 Latin American countries.

Kristina Udice — Elite Daily

Global → femicide

Lethal forms of femicide | Small Arms Survey

February 1, 2012 — Research, Analysis, Report, Study

This Research Note examines lethal forms of violence against women. It defines femicide and relies on the disaggregated data on femicides produced for the Global Burden of Armed Violence in 2011.

Small Arms Survey

"About 66,000 women and girls are violently killed every year, accounting for approximately 17 per cent of all victims of intentional homicides. While the data on which these conservative estimates are based is incomplete, it does reveal certain patterns with respect to the male v. female victim ratio in homicides, intimate partner violence, and the use of firearms in femicides—defined here as ‘the killing of a woman’. ..."
 

#APRAN Research, Analysis, Report, Study

Lethal forms of femicide | Small Arms Survey

February 1, 2012
#femicide, #data, #definition, #research, #violence, #homicides, #firearms

Executive Summary

This Research Note examines lethal forms of violence against women. It defines femicide and relies on the disaggregated data on femicides produced for the Global Burden of Armed Violence in 2011.

Small Arms Survey

"About 66,000 women and girls are violently killed every year, accounting for approximately 17 per cent of all victims of intentional homicides. While the data on which these conservative estimates are based is incomplete, it does reveal certain patterns with respect to the male v. female victim ratio in homicides, intimate partner violence, and the use of firearms in femicides—defined here as ‘the killing of a woman’. ..."
 

Global → femicide

"Femicide"—The Power of a Name | Diana Russell

May 1, 2013 — Femicide Definitions

Sociologist Diana Russell has organized campaigns for decades to end violence against women. In this text she argues that labeling the most extreme form of such violence is essential to combat it. The following full text passage is part of the ACUNS Vienna Femicide Report Volume 1, pages 19-20.

Diana Russell —

 

"Sociologist Diana Russell has organized campaigns for decades to end violence against women. Here she argues that labeling the most extreme form of such violence is essential to combating it.

"The first good-looking girl I see tonight is going to die."—Edward Kemper, serial killer


Public awareness about violence against women has increased dramatically over the last four decades in the United States, thanks to women's multi-faceted activism. However, despite extensive media coverage on male-perpetrated murders of women—including what appear to be increasing numbers of serial killers who target women and girls—few people seem to register that most of these murders are extreme manifestations of male dominance and sexism. In contrast, many individuals recognize that some of the murders of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans and other people of color are racist, that some of the murders of Jews are anti-Semitic, and that some of the murders of lesbians and gay men are homophobic.

As long ago as 1976, I chose the new term femicide to refer to the killing of females by males because they are female. I cited numerous examples of these lethal forms of male violence against women and girls in my testimony on femicide at the FIRST INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL ON CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN5 that took place in Belgium that year. I hoped that introducing this new concept would facilitate people's recognition of the misogynistic motivation of such crimes. Since then, I have engaged in many different strategies in the hope that one or other of them would inspire feminists in the United States to adopt this term instead of the gender-neutral words murder or homicide. However, most American feminists, including those who have focused their efforts on combating violence against women, continue to use terms—such as domestic homicides—that obscure the misogynist factor in virtually all these crimes.

Although women's male partners are by far the most frequent perpetrators of femicides (about 40 to 50 percent), it is vital to recognize that femicides are also perpetrated by strangers, acquaintances, dates, friends, colleagues, johns, and other family members. Thousands of men who murder women every year in this country are motivated by misogyny. Indeed, the vast majority of all murders of women are femicides. In contrast, the relatively few women who murder men are usually motivated by self-defense. Thus, the eradication of sexism—what feminists have been striving for since our beginning—would eliminate this most powerful motive, and few men would murder women.

In contrast to the continuing failure of efforts to get U.S. feminists to adopt the term femicide, the concept is now widely used in many Latin American countries.6 Sometimes referred to as feminicide in these countries, feminists in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Nicaragua, and Honduras have adopted one or other of these terms. Anti-femicide organizations have also been formed, eight of which have so far succeeded in getting their governments to pass laws against femicide. What accounts for the differences in the responses of U.S. and Latin American feminists to the term femicide—and the activism that it has inspired—is a total mystery to me.

On a more positive note, there are a few researchers on femicide in the United States, including a team led by feminist Jacqueline Campbell7, who discovered that the percentage of what they call "intimate partner" femicides increased from 54 to 72 percent between 1976 and 1996. That span of years included intense periods of feminist activity, suggesting that women's growing independence has resulted in some men reacting with lethal violence. Feeling their power threatened or challenged, these men appear to feel entitled to use whatever force is necessary to maintain dominance over those they consider their inferiors. MALE SUPREMACY continues to render all women chronically and profoundly unsafe. In Campbell’s words8, "all women are at risk of femicide." The fear of being murdered by a man is probably felt by most women at some time in their lives.

Femicides are frequently trivialized and depoliticized by the claim that the perpetrators are "crazy." In contrast, it is generally accepted that the lynching of African Americans and the torture and murder of concentration camp inmates were political hate crimes, the goals of which were to preserve white dominance and Aryan/Nazi supremacy, regardless of the psychopathology of the perpetrators. In any case, being mentally ill does not free men from their misogyny or racism. Femicides are lethal hate crimes. While the FEDERAL HATE CRIME LAW includes crimes motivated by actual or perceived gender, and 28 states have statutes that include gender, the only gender-based hate murder (femicide) that I have located was charged by the U.S. Justice Department in 2002. The perpetrator had bound, gagged, and slit the throats of two lesbians while they were camping in a National Park. "They DESERVED TO DIE because they were lesbian whores," he said, revealing that his hate crime was based on lesbiphobia as well as misogyny. It's clear that other strategies are needed to combat femicides in this country.

In the post-9/11 era, terrorism has become a major preoccupation of the U.S. government. However, there is no recognition of the fact that women have been living with male terrorism—manifesting in high magnitudes of rape, beatings, and femicides, as well as threats of these acts—hanging over our heads on a daily basis for eons. Unlike victims of national terrorism, victims of male terror are often blamed for their deaths—while having no way to identify which men are a danger to them. Worse still, those who kill their would-be perpetrators in self-defense are frequently accused of murder and incarcerated for many years.

Despite the fact that most women are also in denial about this reality, I am hoping that increasing numbers of U.S. feminists will soon embrace the concept of femicide, and organize to combat it. And were my hope not realized, I am optimistic that the term femicide, and the activism it usually inspires, will eventually spread from Latin America to the United States and the rest of the world.

www.dianarussell.com

Diana E. H. Russell has a Ph.D. from Harvard University and is a Professor Emerita at Mills College in Oakland, California, in the United States. She is one of the foremost experts on violence against women and girls in the world -- especially sexual violence. For the past 40 years she has been deeply engaged in pioneering research and has authored, co-authored, edited, and/or co-edited 17 books and numerous articles."

#APRAN Femicide Definitions

"Femicide"—The Power of a Name | Diana Russell

May 1, 2013
#femicide, #definition, #campaign, #Diane Russell, #combat, #ACUNS

Executive Summary

Sociologist Diana Russell has organized campaigns for decades to end violence against women. In this text she argues that labeling the most extreme form of such violence is essential to combat it. The following full text passage is part of the ACUNS Vienna Femicide Report Volume 1, pages 19-20.

Diana Russell —

 

"Sociologist Diana Russell has organized campaigns for decades to end violence against women. Here she argues that labeling the most extreme form of such violence is essential to combating it.

"The first good-looking girl I see tonight is going to die."—Edward Kemper, serial killer


Public awareness about violence against women has increased dramatically over the last four decades in the United States, thanks to women's multi-faceted activism. However, despite extensive media coverage on male-perpetrated murders of women—including what appear to be increasing numbers of serial killers who target women and girls—few people seem to register that most of these murders are extreme manifestations of male dominance and sexism. In contrast, many individuals recognize that some of the murders of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans and other people of color are racist, that some of the murders of Jews are anti-Semitic, and that some of the murders of lesbians and gay men are homophobic.

As long ago as 1976, I chose the new term femicide to refer to the killing of females by males because they are female. I cited numerous examples of these lethal forms of male violence against women and girls in my testimony on femicide at the FIRST INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL ON CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN5 that took place in Belgium that year. I hoped that introducing this new concept would facilitate people's recognition of the misogynistic motivation of such crimes. Since then, I have engaged in many different strategies in the hope that one or other of them would inspire feminists in the United States to adopt this term instead of the gender-neutral words murder or homicide. However, most American feminists, including those who have focused their efforts on combating violence against women, continue to use terms—such as domestic homicides—that obscure the misogynist factor in virtually all these crimes.

Although women's male partners are by far the most frequent perpetrators of femicides (about 40 to 50 percent), it is vital to recognize that femicides are also perpetrated by strangers, acquaintances, dates, friends, colleagues, johns, and other family members. Thousands of men who murder women every year in this country are motivated by misogyny. Indeed, the vast majority of all murders of women are femicides. In contrast, the relatively few women who murder men are usually motivated by self-defense. Thus, the eradication of sexism—what feminists have been striving for since our beginning—would eliminate this most powerful motive, and few men would murder women.

In contrast to the continuing failure of efforts to get U.S. feminists to adopt the term femicide, the concept is now widely used in many Latin American countries.6 Sometimes referred to as feminicide in these countries, feminists in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Nicaragua, and Honduras have adopted one or other of these terms. Anti-femicide organizations have also been formed, eight of which have so far succeeded in getting their governments to pass laws against femicide. What accounts for the differences in the responses of U.S. and Latin American feminists to the term femicide—and the activism that it has inspired—is a total mystery to me.

On a more positive note, there are a few researchers on femicide in the United States, including a team led by feminist Jacqueline Campbell7, who discovered that the percentage of what they call "intimate partner" femicides increased from 54 to 72 percent between 1976 and 1996. That span of years included intense periods of feminist activity, suggesting that women's growing independence has resulted in some men reacting with lethal violence. Feeling their power threatened or challenged, these men appear to feel entitled to use whatever force is necessary to maintain dominance over those they consider their inferiors. MALE SUPREMACY continues to render all women chronically and profoundly unsafe. In Campbell’s words8, "all women are at risk of femicide." The fear of being murdered by a man is probably felt by most women at some time in their lives.

Femicides are frequently trivialized and depoliticized by the claim that the perpetrators are "crazy." In contrast, it is generally accepted that the lynching of African Americans and the torture and murder of concentration camp inmates were political hate crimes, the goals of which were to preserve white dominance and Aryan/Nazi supremacy, regardless of the psychopathology of the perpetrators. In any case, being mentally ill does not free men from their misogyny or racism. Femicides are lethal hate crimes. While the FEDERAL HATE CRIME LAW includes crimes motivated by actual or perceived gender, and 28 states have statutes that include gender, the only gender-based hate murder (femicide) that I have located was charged by the U.S. Justice Department in 2002. The perpetrator had bound, gagged, and slit the throats of two lesbians while they were camping in a National Park. "They DESERVED TO DIE because they were lesbian whores," he said, revealing that his hate crime was based on lesbiphobia as well as misogyny. It's clear that other strategies are needed to combat femicides in this country.

In the post-9/11 era, terrorism has become a major preoccupation of the U.S. government. However, there is no recognition of the fact that women have been living with male terrorism—manifesting in high magnitudes of rape, beatings, and femicides, as well as threats of these acts—hanging over our heads on a daily basis for eons. Unlike victims of national terrorism, victims of male terror are often blamed for their deaths—while having no way to identify which men are a danger to them. Worse still, those who kill their would-be perpetrators in self-defense are frequently accused of murder and incarcerated for many years.

Despite the fact that most women are also in denial about this reality, I am hoping that increasing numbers of U.S. feminists will soon embrace the concept of femicide, and organize to combat it. And were my hope not realized, I am optimistic that the term femicide, and the activism it usually inspires, will eventually spread from Latin America to the United States and the rest of the world.

www.dianarussell.com

Diana E. H. Russell has a Ph.D. from Harvard University and is a Professor Emerita at Mills College in Oakland, California, in the United States. She is one of the foremost experts on violence against women and girls in the world -- especially sexual violence. For the past 40 years she has been deeply engaged in pioneering research and has authored, co-authored, edited, and/or co-edited 17 books and numerous articles."

Global → femicide

What do we mean by femicide? | Editorial Team

January 1, 2018 — Femicide Definitions
Femicide Vol X

Trying to agree upon a global homogeneous definition of the killing of women and girls based on their gender is highly complex: its meaning varies according to the point of view, context, and discipline from which it is being examined, as well as its scope, content and implications rely on how it is being addressed. However, the following definition results from the various documents and efforts that stakeholders, concerned with this heinous multi-layered phenomenon, have touched upon.

 

FWP Editorial TEam

 

General definition and aspects

The term femicide refers to the killing of women and girls because they are females, i.e. because of their gender.

  • Femicide/feminicide are are not “isolated” or “sporadic” cases of violence, but result from unequal power structures—rooted in “traditional” gender roles, customs and mindsets—where women and girls often find themselves in a subordinated and/or marginalized position.
  • Femicide/feminicide is not only the most extreme form of violence against women, but also the most violent manifestation of discrimination against them and their inequality.
  • Femicide/feminicide occurs both in the private and in the public sphere, by an intimate-partner, or by any other member of the community and, in some contexts, it might be perpetrated or tolerated by the States’ actions or omissions.
  • Femicide/feminicide includes a wide range of categories of killings. The former SRVAW, professor Rashida Manjoo, generated a knowledge base surrounding this phenomenon in her thematic reports.

 

Different notions by different actors

Quote Diana Russell

WHO, UN Women

 

The different categories

The previous UN Special Rapporteur on VAW, professor Rashida Manjoo, started to create a knowledge base surrounding this phenomenon in her thematic reports, arguing that it “represents the extreme manifestation of existing forms of violence against women […] gender-related killings are not isolated incidents which arise suddenly and unexpectedly, but are rather the ultimate act of violence which is experienced in a continuum of violence”(A/HRC/20/16).

She further identified an extensive set of categories of femicide perpetrated directly and indirectly. The direct category includes: killings as a result of intimate-partner violence; sorcery/witchcraft-related killings; honour-related killings; armed conflict-related killings; dowry-related killings; gender identity- and sexual orientation-related killings; and ethnic- and indigenous identity-related killings.

The indirect category includes: deaths due to poorly conducted or clandestine abortions; maternal mortality; deaths from harmful practices; deaths linked to human trafficking, drug dealing, organized crime and gang-related activities; the death of girls or women from simple neglect, through starvation or ill-treatment; and deliberate acts or omissions by the State.

This list is ultimately non-exhaustive, since society is fluid and constantly changing, hence other forms of violence against women can emerge. New forms of femicide that are now receiving more attention include extremism, fundamentalism, and the killing of women and girls in  flight.

#APRAN Femicide Definitions

What do we mean by femicide? | Editorial Team

January 1, 2018
#definition, #femicide, #categories of femicide, #history, #Femicide Watch Platform, #WHO, #notions, #data collection, #UNODC
Femicide Vol X

Executive Summary

Trying to agree upon a global homogeneous definition of the killing of women and girls based on their gender is highly complex: its meaning varies according to the point of view, context, and discipline from which it is being examined, as well as its scope, content and implications rely on how it is being addressed. However, the following definition results from the various documents and efforts that stakeholders, concerned with this heinous multi-layered phenomenon, have touched upon.

 

FWP Editorial TEam

 

General definition and aspects

The term femicide refers to the killing of women and girls because they are females, i.e. because of their gender.

  • Femicide/feminicide are are not “isolated” or “sporadic” cases of violence, but result from unequal power structures—rooted in “traditional” gender roles, customs and mindsets—where women and girls often find themselves in a subordinated and/or marginalized position.
  • Femicide/feminicide is not only the most extreme form of violence against women, but also the most violent manifestation of discrimination against them and their inequality.
  • Femicide/feminicide occurs both in the private and in the public sphere, by an intimate-partner, or by any other member of the community and, in some contexts, it might be perpetrated or tolerated by the States’ actions or omissions.
  • Femicide/feminicide includes a wide range of categories of killings. The former SRVAW, professor Rashida Manjoo, generated a knowledge base surrounding this phenomenon in her thematic reports.

 

Different notions by different actors

Quote Diana Russell

WHO, UN Women

 

The different categories

The previous UN Special Rapporteur on VAW, professor Rashida Manjoo, started to create a knowledge base surrounding this phenomenon in her thematic reports, arguing that it “represents the extreme manifestation of existing forms of violence against women […] gender-related killings are not isolated incidents which arise suddenly and unexpectedly, but are rather the ultimate act of violence which is experienced in a continuum of violence”(A/HRC/20/16).

She further identified an extensive set of categories of femicide perpetrated directly and indirectly. The direct category includes: killings as a result of intimate-partner violence; sorcery/witchcraft-related killings; honour-related killings; armed conflict-related killings; dowry-related killings; gender identity- and sexual orientation-related killings; and ethnic- and indigenous identity-related killings.

The indirect category includes: deaths due to poorly conducted or clandestine abortions; maternal mortality; deaths from harmful practices; deaths linked to human trafficking, drug dealing, organized crime and gang-related activities; the death of girls or women from simple neglect, through starvation or ill-treatment; and deliberate acts or omissions by the State.

This list is ultimately non-exhaustive, since society is fluid and constantly changing, hence other forms of violence against women can emerge. New forms of femicide that are now receiving more attention include extremism, fundamentalism, and the killing of women and girls in  flight.